Essential Minerals: Part 12 Sodium, Selenium, Molybdenum, and Sulphur


In the previous article we discussed the relationship between Calcium, Sodium, Potassium and Phosphorous, we mentioned the critical purpose of the many Sodium/Potassium pumps that are embedded in the membranes of every cell to assist the substance exchanges in/out of the cell.

In this article we will discuss the Sodium and its other purposes in the body, as well as Selenium, Molybdenum and Sulphur.

Table 1: Recommended Daily Intake for Minerals

Mineral Relationships:

Sodium/Potassium ATPase Pumps

We mentioned in our last discussion the millions of Potassium/sodium pumps that are embedded in cell membranes.  

There are also Hydrogen/Potassium pumps in the stomach cells, in fact these pumps are H+K+ ATPase (Hydrogen Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase), but these pumps are extraordinary, as are the cells they are attached to, the Parietal Cells that reside deep in the stomach lining and uniquely provide 2 functions.  

We have already met these before when we were discussing B12, since these cells are not only responsible for Hydrochloric acid (HCl) production for the stomach, but they also produce the Protein Intrinsic Factor to support B12 absorption.

For obvious reasons HCI (made from Hydrogen and chloride) production occurs outside of the cell, after the cell pumps Hydrogen Ions from the blood into the stomach which blends with Chloride ions.

However, the pump is transporting +vely charged Hydrogen Ions, which is a mammoth task since charged molecules can resist this movement due to the attraction/repel laws.  

Furthermore, Charge separation (caused by the ‘removal of hydrogen ions) biologically is also a ‘no no’, so the deficit left behind by the pumped hydrogen from the blood needs to be replaced.

The cell then pumps +vely charged Potassium Ions from the stomach into the blood to ‘fill the hole’.

Since the differential in Hydrogen Ion concentration in the blood (much less) vs the concentration requirement in the stomach (much more) the energy required, cellular speaking, is enormous, so high energy ATP molecules are required, which are enzymatically broken down by the pumps to liberate the energy.

Hydrochloric Acid also contains large quantities of Potassium Chloride (Kcl) and Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and it is the latter that is provided by dietary Salt, which if you restrict, will reduce the production of stomach acid.  

Furthermore, apart from erroneous low salt dietary recommendations, given by conventional medicine, they also have other biological weapons in their arsenal that can stop Hydrochloric Acid  production altogether. 

In an attempt to cure  Gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD..and get this. they refer this as a disease), or Acid Reflux as it is commonly known, Proton pump Inhibitors ( Prilosec) are administered, which is the next step taking Anti-Acid pills (Tums or Maalox).

Unfortunately they bring little relief…

Do you know why ??..anybody……yes you in the white coat..too much stomach acid..NO..anybody else…

..well in your stomach you have G cells ( G for Gastrin which is a hormone) that reside in the stomach’s Chemical Laboratory called the Pyloric Antrum, where they monitor the level of stomach acid.  

When you ingest a substance like Anti-Acid pills it neutralises the Acidity and the G cells sense that the fires out, so they transmit their Gastrin Hormone to the Parietal Cells to produce more acid.  

So, as this vicious cycle continues, your physician becomes frustrated, like you, because the acid reflux keeps returning, and you’re wasting the physician’s valuable time?  Your physician prescribes the ‘big gun’ the Proton Pump Inhibitor to bypass the G cell monitoring and cripple the acid producing Parietal cell.  

Although they are still receiving the Gastrin signal, the Parietal Cells can do nothing because their ‘hands have been shackled‘.

These medical weapons of destruction does not end there..if the Proton Pump Inhibitors fail to bring relief which they won’t, then there is another course of action...’a bigger gun’.

Parietal cells also have a Histamine Receptor called H2 ( This is not the same histamine receptor (H1) on other cells that cause stuffy noses, sneezing and wheezing), that react to histamine secretion from our mast cells, applying a constant signal to keep the acid flowing (like background music to keep the ambiance going ).  

Modern medicine have an answer for this to, in fact, we have several ‘flavors’..Whoopee, H2 blockers such as Tagamet, Zantac and Pepcid AC.   

All of these prescription drugs block the constant acid flow.

In summary, conventional medicine are under some misguided assumption that GERD is caused by too much acid, when in fact it is the opposite, it is a problem of Alkalinitythe stomach acid has become too alkaline.  

When this occurs the lower muscle valve, known as the Lower Esophogeal Sphincter opens, allowing acid to splash back up the esophogas, since it is only when the stomach acid is acidic enough ( PH 1-2) thats keeps this valve closed. 

Of course none of these drugs do not work because the condition has been misdiagnosed.  The proper treatment is to make the stomach acid more acidic by taking Apple Cider Vinegar with lemon every day or alternatively take some Betaine Hydrochloride which is a nutritional supplement from the health food store, and don’t forget to take enough salt in the diet.

I promise to write an article on Digestion including Ulcers and H.Pylori and why you should never take any of these destructive substances.  

So not only does the government want to over-police society they want to police your body as well.  

Well I’m sorry but the body has its own police force called the Immune system and Fire department adrenals and cortisol, so we don’t need Pharmaceutical Police barriers to block anything and we don’t need Pharmaceutical fire extinguishers such as anti-inflammatory drugs either…lol

Mineral relationships:


These 3 minerals are an indispensable trio responsible for:

  1. Maintaining required balance and distribution of water throughout the body
  2. Maintaining isotonic solutions on both sides of the cell membrane known as Osmotic equilibrium
  3. Maintaining acid base homeostasis or balanced PH throughout the body
  4. Controlling muscle movement and neurological impulse/transmission functioning


This mineral is of monumental importance and as you have noticed I have changed the official RDA of 55μg to 300μg (Revised).  

Most RDA’s are too low but the value of this mineral if you take too little could be disastrous for your body.  

The Importance of Selenium

  1. The turnover of cells within the human organism takes up to 7 years,so exposure to radiation, toxic chemicals, starvation etc can deplete nutrients (especially selenium that has cancer prevention properties) and cancer can ignite in the body. Selenium builds amino acids allowing the body to make 20 million new cells each day. In essence if the body is deficient in selenium for example anytime during that 7 year replacement cycle cancer could potentially ignite in the body.
  2. Selenomethionine is a naturally occurring amino acid found in brazil nuts and is used in all DNA to messenger RNA starting points referred to as the initiation codons.  To have enough dietary selenium cuts the risk in DNA damage (that can lead to cancer).
  3. Even the National institute of health suggests that dietary selenium diminishes cellular changes 
  4. The tumor suppressing Protein P53 found on Chromosome 17 is a selenium based gene that suppresses the formation of tumors. If you are not familiar with basic cell structure we have 46 chromosomes in each cell -these chromosomes are inherited by our parents 23 from each and on each chromosome there are approximately 1000 or so genes that express the functioning of the body). In the bodies daily production of some 20-25 million cells the body does make mistakes but there are mechanisms to correct them, however if there is not enough P53 operative these mistakes are not corrected and can reproduce as cancer 
  5. Selenium is essential for various physiological levels such as the production of Glutathione Peroxidase a family of enzymeS that protects us from oxidative damage by preventing the accumulation of Hydrogen Peroxide and Lipid Hydroperoxides which are oxidized fatty deposits (seen on the skin and are called liver spots or Lipofuscin). These oxygen radicals can attack anything, proteins, DNA which why we need to consume an adequate amounty of antioxidants to assist the body in reducing this problem
  6.  As we know today there are 25 selenoenzymes (Selenium triggered) including Glutathione Peroxidase as discussed above.  Another enzyme is Thioredoxin Reductase that assist in the electron transfer within the cell but can become oxidized and cause havoc within the cell, so with the help of selenium the oxidized state is minimized.  In fact this enzyme is essential for cell growth and survival.
  7.   The eye is normally rich in selenium so deficiency can affect vision
  8.   The manufacture of dentine for teeth is dependent on selenium
  9. The thyroid gland that controls our metabolism requires Iodine from our food to make 2 hormones Triiodothyronine (known as T3 ) and Thyroxine (know as T4); approximately 20% of T3 is made and is the Active form and 80% of T4 is made and is the Storage form and the body converts T4 to T3 as required since T3 is 4 times stronger than T4.  The Thyroid gland is controlled by the Pituitary gland which is controlled by the Hypothalamus. This conversion needs the presence of Selenium.  It is important to mention that if your iodine is low then selenium supplementation will only exacerbate the problem and vice versa so it is important that you have adequate iodine levels. ( A whole food supplement containing kelp every day would be advisable ). It is important to note that thyroid problems can emanate from the thyroid itself, the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus and doctors will check the T4 and/or the T3 levels in the blood and may prescribe drugs which may not help if the problem is coming from somewhere else..they are not going to check your selenium levels in your blood so it is best just to put the fuel that your body needs for optimum function and in the case of the thyroid appropriate levels of Iodine and Selenium.
  10.  The heart in order for its contractile function to work efficiently it requires Selenium (Cardiomyopathy and Keshan’s disease are generally caused by selenium deficiency).  Additionally, there exists in the heart approx 7 strains of Cardiophilic viruses which are normally dormant and benign but under certain circumstances including Selenium Deficiency they can be activated and become virulent.
  11.  From the above you can appreciate that Selenium is a natural antiviral agent and has been used to help patients suffering from the AIDS virus.
  12.  The liver is normally rich in Selenium and if deficient can cause Necrosis in some cases.
  13.  A condition known as Lymphedema which is swelling of the Lymphatic System caused by cancer treatment for breast cancer or the removal of lymph nodes.  This is a horrible condition where women can very easily get infections of the lymph system, that may cause a blockage that by conventional medicine can’t alleviate and women are subjected to long term Antibiotics to prevent infection.  Selenium supplementation can help and in some cases reverse the condition quite rapidly.
  14.  Selenium is used to treat Pancreatitis and Septicemia.
  15.  Cystic Fibrosis is a Selenium Deficiency condition as proven by Joel Wallach in 1977.

Molybdenum/Sulphur Relationship

Molybdenum is essential in human biology, without it, can cause serious problems.  

It is used as a cofactor for at least 60 enzymes in the body.

The Redox (Reduction-Oxidation) switching of Molybdenum in these enzymes acts as catalyst for the metabolism of Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphur recycling.  

Molybdenum is required for an enzyme Sulfite Oxidase which is responsible for the conversion of Sulfite to Sulfate to maintain Sulphurs mobility around the body.

Sulphur is known as the healing mineral and is a requirement for development and neurological processes. Cholesterol sulphate is synthesized in the skin to assist the skin barrier for protection, create Vitamin D3 precursor, and regulates Gene ‘FLG’ that expresses Profilaggrin a protein complex that protects the Epidermis.

Stephanie Seneff proposes that Cholesterol Sulphate that is water soluble, has no need for lipoprotein transport so it can travel the bloodstream with a free pass and glide in and out of cells ‘like a ghost’.  

Cholesterol Sulphate is an important Sterol Sulphate in plasma alongside Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), another steroid hormone released into the bloodstream from the Adrenal Glands, Gonads and the Brain and act as a precursor for biosynthesis of the male and females steroids that activate sexual arousal and libido. 

DHEA-S (DHEA Sulphate) in the blood is measured by conventional medicine to check the functioning of the adrenal glands. The levels of this hormone are measured to be 145-395 micrograms/deciliter for 19 year olds down to 17-90 for 69 or older individuals. Although DHEA Sulphate is abundant in the blood, as yet Medical research have no idea its function.

A lower than normal reading depending on age, conventional medicine interpret this as Adrenal insufficiency (Addisons Disease ), or the Pituitary Gland is insufficient in its hormone production (Hypopituitarism). Higher than normal is interpreted as a benign or malignant tumor development of the Adrenal Gland or for women younger than 50 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Cholesterol Sulphate is a component of cell membranes for stability purposes i.e protects Erythrocytes ( red blood cells) from Osmotic Lysis ( disintegration), and supports Platelet Adhesion for blood clotting. It is also involved in Keratinocyte differentiation.   

Keratinocyte cells produce fibrous structural proteins called Keratin, a structural material that make up hair, nails,and the outer layer of the skin, and it also protects epithelial cells from damage or stess.

Adequate levels of Iron should be present for enzyme formation that use Molybdenum.

Sulphur and its tight relationship with Molybdenum assist the liver in its detox duties, especially the Sulfite to Sulfate conversion by Sulfite Oxidase, since an excess of Sulfite can impede the liver cells in doing their job as detoxifiers.

In addition Molybdenum is a cofactor for an enzyme (Aldehyde Oxidase) which the liver uses for Phase 1 detox.  

Aldehydes are for example Acetaldehyde, which is a major metabolite of Ethanol (C2H60. the main active ingredient in alcohol, since it is produced naturally by the fementation of Sugar by Yeast ), and is metabolised rapidly in the liver to Acetic acid (Vinegar). 

Another example is Formaldehyde, and both are regarded as carcinogens and both, and others are detoxified by the liver using Aldehyde Oxidase

Another enzyme class Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), (the Human Genome project unearthed at least 19 ALDH genes) catalyse the Oxidation of Aldehydes to Carboxylic Acids. These Carboxylic Acids leave the liver and are metabolized by the body’s muscle and heart

The most common use of Carboxylic acid is in Amino acid production ( Amino Acids consist of Amine and Carboxyl functional groups ( groups of one or more atoms responsible for the chemical reactions of molecules)), and fatty acids.

Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are used in metabolism of nervous system messaging molecules ( Neurotransmitters ), while a specific ALDH, ALDH2 is a vital enzymatic component in maintaining low blood levels of Acetaldehyde during alcohol oxidation, and it is this pathway that becomes clogged when excess alcohol is consumed causing ‘Hangover symptoms’.

Prescription drug Disulfiram (Antabuseis used to treat chronic alcoholism by inhibiting the the function of ALDH2 which causes the patient to be violently sick when consuming only a small amount of alcohol.

Sulphur increase blood circulation, reduces muscle cramping and serves as a lubricant between the joints which is why the health food store supplement Glucosamine sulphate, Chondroitin sulphate and Methyl sulphate (MSM) is a supplement used to help rebuild joint cartilage.

Sulphur is also used for nerve and myelin sheaths and promotes bile production from the gall bladder while providing healthy skin, nails and hair. Adequate Selenium levels prevent Sulphur from being expanded too rapidly and controls its toxicity.

It is also an essential element for our Bacteria since they use Molybdenum as an Antioxidant. 

Interestingly, Molybdenum is a cofactor for an enzyme Xanthine Oxidase (XO) which generates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROSthat oxidises Hypoxanthine to Xanthine, and Xanthine to Uric acid (UA).  The consumption of Protein such as Meat, Poultry and Seafood is naturally broken down by the liver and Purines in these dietary products create a waste product called Uric Acid (UA) using Xanthine Oxidase (XO)

When Autophagy ( cell recycling ) occurs the DNA/RNA that consists of Purines ( the 2 nitrogenous nucleotide bases Adenine and Guanine) are also broken down into Uric Acid.  

When the body is in balance, the Uric acid waste is taken care of, but there is a theory that UA is not completely excreted from the body but some is allowed to circulate in the bloodstream acting as the primary role for the total antioxidant capacity of the bloodstream’

If an individual consumes an excessive amount of Protein creating physiological imbalance causing excessive Uric acid to circulate in the blood which can lead to the accumulation of Uric acid crystals in the joints, that manifests into a known medical condition called ‘Gout’.

The mechanism of action of Prescription medicine for Gout often is to block the function of Xanthine Oxidase (XO).

Natural treatment for Gout is to keep the protein intake below O.4 * Total body weight in pounds/day and ensure you are consuming an adequate diet of legumes and other dietary sources as shown in the chart below, and you are taking the 90 essential nutrient supplementation daily.

Molybdenum is also known to be component in the formation of Amidoxime Reducing Components Proteins that are used for mitochondrial functioning.

Since Mitochondria are our energy producing factory complexes it is possible that Molybdenum plays a role in aerobic energy production but scientific verification has not yet been established.

Finally, we will mention Molybdopterin ?, which define a class of cofactors found in Molybdenum and Tungsten containing Enzymes, where these cofactors are referred to as MOCOs (Molybdopterin Cofactors), which form the base for Enzymes Xanthine Oxidase (XO), Sulfite Oxidase (SO) and Aldehyde Oxidase.

Table 2: Molybdenum Food Sources

Table 3: Sulphur Food Sources

I died as a mineral and became a plant,

I died as plant and rose to animal,

I died as animal and I was Man.

Why should I fear? When was I less by dying?

“I Died as a Mineral”,

as translated in The Mystics of Islam (1914) quote Rumi Wikiquote

Check out the Previous Article in this series:


  1. Minerals for the genetic code Charles Waters/Dr Richard Olree 2013
  2. The real vitamin & mineral book Shari Lieberman, Nancy Bruning 2007
  3. Modern Nutrition in health and disease M.Shils, M.Shike, C.Ross, B.Caballero, R.Cousins
  4. Epigenetics  Essential minerals section Joel Wallach book 2014
  5. The role of HCL in gastric function and health Michael Ash 2011 Clinical education
  6. Redox chemistry of Molybdenum in natural waters and its involvement in biological evolution Deli Wang 2012 NCBI
  7. Molybdenum World’s healthiest foods website
  8. Xanthine Oxidase, Ethanol, Acetaldehyde, Molybdopterin, Aldehyde dehydrogenases, Disulfiram, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Wikipedia
  9. DHEA-sulphate Test Mount Sinai
  10. Cholesterol Sulphate in Human Physiology: Whats it all about ? 2003 Strott & Higashi NCBI (PubMed)

Author: Eric Malouin